At the same time as the growth of capitalist relations at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, the Iranian working class started to grow. Despite all the obstacles and limits which imperialism and international finance capital had put on the "free" and rapid developement of capitalism in Iran, their influence has caused the capitalist alteration process to take place at a slowesr rate and the Iranian working class had already grown by the beginning of the 20th century. The first trade unions were founded at the same time during the bourgeois-democratic revolution in Iran called "The Constitutional revolution (1905 - 1911)". The first social democratic cells appeared at this time, and social democratic circles were formed.
Despite the modest numbers of the industrial proletariat, the fact which helped to stimulate the socialist- marxist tendencies and increase the consciousness of the working class, was the Iranian workers connection with the Russian social-democratic movement at the start of this century. Every year, a large number of Iranian workers travelled to Russia in order to find a job and many found work with the Baku oil industry. They became acquainted with Marxism and the organised movement of the proletariat in Russia. When they later on returned to Iran, they continued with their activities as "conscious workers"...